The name of Nellore district has been changed as Sri Potti Sriramulu Nellore District on 4th June, 2008. SPSR Nellore District is one of the nine Coastal districts of Andhra Pradesh and it is the Southern most one. It lies between 13o 25’ and 15o 55’ N of the Northern Latitude and 79o 9’ and 80o 14’ of the Eastern Longitude. It spreads over an area of 13,076 Sq.Kms and these accounts for 4.75% of total area of the State.
The geographical, topographic and demographic features besides other socio economic aspects of S.P.S.Nellore District are delineated hereunder.
BOUNDARIES OF THE DISTRICT : The district is bounded by the following places and features on all the four sides.
East : Bay of Bengal
West : Veligonda Hills which separately it from Kadapa district
North : Prakasam District
South : Chittoor District and Tamilnadu
1. ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISIONS :
There are 5 Revenue Divisions with headquarters at Kavali, Nellore,Gudur, Atmakur and Naidupet. 46 Revenue Mandals with equal number of Mandal Parishads are also existing in the District. A total of 940 Gram Panchayats are in position comprising all notified Gram Panchayats.
There is 1 Municipal Corporation at Nellore, 5 Municipalities at Kavali,Gudur, Venkatagiri, Atmakur and Sullurpet and One Nagar Panchayat at Naidupet.
2. DEMOGRAPHY :
The total area of the district is 13,076 Sq.Kms. The total population of the district as per 2011 population census is 29.64 lakhs. Out of this, the rural and urban populations are 21.06 lakhs and 8.58 lakhs respectively forming 71.06 % and 28.94% of total population. The density of population is 227 per Sq.km. The population of females per 1000 males is 985. The population covered under Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribe communities is 6.66 Lakhs and 2.86 Lakhs respectively. The decennial growth rate is registered at 11.05% whereas the density of population per Sq.Km has been increased from 204 to 227 in the period 2001-2011.
As regards the working population of the district, there are as many as 10.76 lakhs main workers out of the total population of 29.64 Lakhs. The balance being the non-workers to an extent of 16.49 lakhs. The main workers and marginal workers form 80.2% and 19.8% respectively out of the total work force.
LAND UTILISATION :
The total geographical area of the district is 13.07 lakh hectares. Out of this, 20.80% of the area is covered by forests. The rest is distributed among Barren and Uncultivable land and Land Put to Non-Agricultural Uses which constitute 6.30% and 23.50% of the geographical area respectively. The Net area sown forms 25.50% of the total geographical area while the cultivable waste, fallow lands, permanent pastures and miscellaneous tree
crops constitute 23.90%.
3. NATURAL RESOURCES :
A. RIVERS :
The Principal Rivers are Pennar and Swarnamukhi. The other streams are Kandaleru and Boggeru which are occasionally torrential in Character during rainy season. The rivers and rivulets remain dry for major part of the year and carry floods during rainy season. Pennar river is the most important one and flows for about 112 Kms in the district which serve as a boon to the eastern half of the taluks of Nellore and Kovur. Two anicuts are situated one at Sangam and the other at Nellore.
B. SOIL TYPES :
The soils of the district are classified as black, red and sandy. The red soil is predominant with 40% of the area in the district whereas a belt of sand runs along the sea coast. The black cotton soil and sandy loams occupy 23% and 34% of the area respectively.
C. FLORA AND FAUNA :
As much as 20.80% of the total area of the district is occupied by forest. But all the forests are not productive. Class I forests which are being under scientific management for a long time past registered good growth. The Plain forests are devoid of wild life worth the name. Hill forests harbour wild life and occasionally tigers cross over this district from the forests of Kadapa district. The Pulicat Lake in the district harbour migratory birds since it is the host of water birds. Fish and other marine organisms also thrive in the lake.